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Monday, May 13, 2013

Algorithmic Decomposition Versus Object-Oriented Decomposition



Traditional programming techniques have used algorithmic decomposition. Algorithmic or functional decomposition views software as a process. It decomposes the software into modules that represents steps of a process. These modules are implemented by language constructs such as functions in C. The data structures required to implement the program are a secondary concern, which is addressed after the project has been decomposed into functional modules.

Object-oriented decomposition views software as a set of well-defined objects that model entities in the application domain. These objects interact with each other to form a software system. Functional decomposition is addressed after the system has been decomposed into objects. An object is an entity that performs computations and has a local state. It may therefore be viewed as a combination of data and procedural elements.

Object-oriented approach is a method of implementation in which

1) Objects are the fundamental building blocks.
2) Each object is an instance of some type or class.
3) Classes are related to each other by inheritance relationships.

The principal advantage of object-oriented decomposition is that it encourages the reuse of software. This results in flexible software systems that can evolve as system requirements change. It allows a programmer to use object-oriented programming languages effectively. Object-oriented decomposition is also more intuitive than algorithm-oriented decomposition because objects naturally model entities in the application domain.

Object-oriented design is a design strategy where system designers think in terms of 'things' instead of operations or functions. The executing system is made up of interacting objects that maintain their own local state and provide operations on that state information. They hide information about the representation of the state and hence limit access to it. An object-oriented design process involves
designing the object classes and the relationships between these classes. When the design is realised as an executing program, the required objects are created dynamically using the class definitions.

Object-oriented systems should be maintainable as the objects are independent. They may be understood and modified as stand-alone entities. Changing the implementation of an object or adding services should not affect other system objects. Because objects are associated with things, there is often a clear mapping between real-world entities (such as hardware components) and their controlling objects in the system. This improves the understandability and hence the maintainability of the design.

The two approaches are similar in that both believe that the way to develop a complex system is by using the philosophy of divide-and-conquer; that is break up a complex software design project into a number of simpler subprojects, and then tackle these subprojects individually. The two approaches disagree on how a project should be decomposed.


Wednesday, May 8, 2013

Finding the Perfect Tattoo Desig







Finding the perfect tattoo design idea can be a timely affair. You must weight all your options and be satisfied with the permanent results. You will spend countless hours disregarding the designs that do not fit you and many more hours debating between the good designs. To make it easier on you, here are some popular tattoo design ideas that might be perfect for you.

One type of design that you might want to consider is one that celebrates your culture and heritage. Some examples of this would be national flags, Celtic designs, tribal tattoos, oriental writing and many more. There are many reasons why the tattoos that focus on culture and heritage are perfect. First, they allow you and your family to honor your name, heritage and pride. Second, they are usually designed in such a fashion that the design conveys mythical qualities.

You might want to consider a tattoo the expresses your religious dedication. Whether you are a Muslim, Christian, Buddhist or belonging to any other faith, a religious tattoo is perfect. Some examples include a cross, angels, Buddha, Jesus, the Holy Trinity or and many other religious symbols. You can also get important and meaningful scripture tattooed. If you are a spiritual person you can certainly find a tattoo that is important to you.

Another tattoo that you might want to think about getting is an animal tattoo. Many people have a favorite animal. Animal characteristics can be seen a parallel to one's own characteristics. Someone who is strong might seek out an animal design such as a bull, elephant, a rhino or any other big animal. Someone who loves swimming might consider a dolphin or a fish. Someone who is fast will get a tiger, lion or a cheetah. No matter what trait you see in yourself, you can certainly find an animal that is like that.

There is one more thing to consider when selecting your perfect tattoo design. Placement is an important part of any tattoo. No matter what design you select from above or any other designs, you have to consider where on the body you want this tattoo. A tattoo on the arm takes on a different meaning then the same tattoo on the lower back. So you much look at how your tattoo will change depending on where you place it.

As stated before, finding the perfect tattoo design idea is going to be tough. You need to take your time and consider ever type. There are millions of designs. You must weed through the irrelevant ones and find meaningful tattoos like the examples above.


Tuesday, May 7, 2013

Cool Tattoo Designs For Arms






For those guys who are interested in getting tattoos, it is most usual that they choose to get tattoos on one of their arms or both. Most often, guys go for a tattoo on both arms are one of the most popular places that guys get cool tattoo designs inked on. Having tattoos on arms are mostly favoured by men because the tattoos can be displayed easily and there are a lot of different designs and sizes that can be placed in several parts of both arms. Whether the design will be placed on the forearm or upper arm, still the designs that you can place on them are endless.

With that being said, what then, are tattoo sleeves? Sleeves are tattooed on the whole length of the arm, or in some instances, only on the upper arm and usually consists of art work that surrounds the entire length of the front arm as well as the entire length of the arm's back. This creates a sleeve effect made of art work. There are some guys who choose to have several cool tattoo designs to make up the sleeve while there are some guys who opt for a single design running the entire length of the arm.

When you decide on which arm tattoo to get done, it is very important to consider just how far up your arm that single tattoo would reach. Consider if the arm tattoo will cover the shoulders too. These are just some of the few things that you would need to think about when you are getting a sleeve tattoo also to be sure that you would be able to make the most out of the tattoo that is being done on you.

Arm tattoos are generally more popular in men than it is for women because of the larger area that the artist would be able to work on in men when it comes to the designing aspect of the tattoo. A man's arms, being a larger area than a woman's is a great place to create an art work that is either a single design or a combination of several designs.

The thing about having cool tattoo designs in the arms or having tattoo sleeves done is that these designs could not be easily completed in one sitting or session. Usually, an artist does the outline of the designs and completes the outline first. And then, within multiple sessions, an artist can slowly fill in the colours and the designs. The most important thing about getting tattoo sleeves from the start until everything is completed is that you have to be sure about the designs that you would have done and that this is something that you are not going to have a change of mind later on. Tattoos are permanent and while there are procedures that make tattoo removal possible, this would normally cause more money, would take longer to do and be more painful than having the tattoo done in the first place.


 
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